Efrain C. Azmitia

Efrain C. Azmitia

Professor of Biology, Neural Science

Ph.D. 1973 (Neuroscience), Rockefeller; M.A. 1973 (Anatomy), Cambridge; B.A. 1968 (Biology), Washington.

Office Address: 

New York University
Department of Biology
1009 Silver Center
100 Washington Square East
New York, NY 10003-6688


(212) 998-8235


(212) 995-4015

Areas of Research/Interest: 

Neuroplasticity of the brain regulated by neuronal serotonin and glial S-100 protein

List of Publications from Pubmed

List of citations from Google Scholar



The morphology of brain cells in the adult brain is in constant flux due to reorganization of the cytoskeleton. In experimental animals, the mature phenotype of neurons can be lost in the adult brain when trophic factors are withdrawn, and reestablished upon replacement. We have been studying reversible brain changes for over 20 years and recently proposed a model based on neuronal instability to explain these changes. The shape of a cell, whether neuronal or glial, is dependent on the integrity of the cytoskeleton composed mainly of microtubules and microtubule associated proteins (MAPs). MAPs function to sta-bilize the tubulin polymers. When the MAPs are phosphorylated, they can no longer attach to the polymers, and the long strands of tubulin depolymerize. This results in a collapse of the cellular morphology, e.g. dendritic and process retraction. S100b is a soluble glial protein concentrated in neurons, which protects MAPs from phos-phorylation. We have shown that the addition of S100b stabilizes and promotes the extension of dendritic processes.Serotonin, acting on the 5-HT1A high affinity receptor, can stimulate the release of S100b from astrocytes. recpt_small.jpgGlucocorticoids, secreted during stress, can enhance serotonin turnover and adrenalectomy has the opposite effect of reducing serotonin activity. Both adrenalectomy (removing source of glucocorticoids) or depletion of serotonin (by injecting the substituted amphetamines or specific synthesis inhibitors) have been found to reduce dendritic staining and synapse number in hippocampus and cortex. This reduction of mature neuronal morphology is rapidly reversible upon replacement of steroids or serotonin. Others have found similar examples of retraction and expansion manipulating estrogen, dopamine, norepinephrine and NGF. We propose a model of neuronal instability to explain these reversible changes in neuronal shape and connections. Our results obtained in experimental animals may have applicability to brain volumetric and neurophilic changes seen in alcoholism, anorexia nervosa, Alzheimer's and depression. As is evident in the hibernating ground squirrel or cycling female rat, loss of dendrites may represent a normal response of a cell to a changing trophic environment, which could represent healthy plasticity rather than irreversible pathology.

Affiliated with other departments or programs:

Affiliate of Center for Neural Science; Adjunct Professor of Psychiatry, NYU School of Medicine

External Affiliations:

American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, Harvey Societym Scientists Institute for Public Information, Serotonin Club, Society for Neuroscience, The New York Academy of Medicine, The New York Academy of Science.


Awarded the K05 Senior Scientist Career Award, April 2001.

Selected Works:

PubMed Search Results:

Serotonergic Markers in Atopic Dermatitis.
Acta Derm Venereol   (2016 Aug 23);   PMID: 26831833
Rasul A, El-Nour H, Lonne-Rahm SB, Fransson O, Johansson C, Johansson B, Zubeidi M, Seeberg E, Djurfeldt DR, Azmitia EC, Nordlind K
Persistent Angiogenesis in the Autism Brain: An Immunocytochemical Study of Postmortem Cortex, Brainstem and Cerebellum.
J Autism Dev Disord   (2016 Apr);  PMC4836621 free full-text archive
Azmitia EC, Saccomano ZT, Alzoobaee MF, Boldrini M, Whitaker-Azmitia PM
Contribution of olivofloccular circuitry developmental defects to atypical gaze in autism.
Brain Res   (2013 May 28);  PMC3967119 free full-text archive
Wegiel J, Kuchna I, Nowicki K, Imaki H, Wegiel J, Ma SY, Azmitia EC, Banerjee P, Flory M, Cohen IL, London E, Brown WT, Komich Hare C, Wisniewski T
Serotonin and its 5-HT1 receptor in human mastocytosis.
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol   (2012 Aug);   PMID: 22268664
Ritter M, El-Nour H, Hedblad MA, Butterfield JH, Beck O, Stephanson N, Holst M, Giscombe R, Azmitia EC, Nordlind K
Clozapine functions through the prefrontal cortex serotonin 1A receptor to heighten neuronal activity via calmodulin kinase II-NMDA receptor interactions.
J Neurochem   (2012 Feb);  PMC3253201 free full-text archive
Purkayastha S, Ford J, Kanjilal B, Diallo S, Del Rosario Inigo J, Neuwirth L, El Idrissi A, Ahmed Z, Wieraszko A, Azmitia EC, Banerjee P
Dystrophic serotonin axons in postmortem brains from young autism patients.
Anat Rec (Hoboken)   (2011 Oct);  PMC4112519 free full-text archive
Azmitia EC, Singh JS, Hou XP, Wegiel J
Increased serotonin axons (immunoreactive to 5-HT transporter) in postmortem brains from young autism donors.
Neuropharmacology   (2011 Jun);   PMID: 21329710
Azmitia EC, Singh JS, Whitaker-Azmitia PM
Time-dependent modulation of serotonin and its receptors 1A and 2A expression in allergic contact dermatitis.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol   (2011 Oct);   PMID: 21214634
Wetterberg J, Taher C, Azmitia EC, El-Nour H
Different serotonergic expression in nevomelanocytic tumors.
Cancers (Basel)   (2010 Jun 07);  PMC3835124 free full-text archive
Naimi-Akbar C, Ritter M, Demel S, El-Nour H, Hedblad MA, Azmitia EC, Nordlind K
S100beta protein expression: gender- and age-related daily changes.
Neurochem Res   (2009 Aug);   PMID: 19205880
Nogueira MI, Abbas SY, Campos LG, Allemandi W, Lawson P, Takada SH, Azmitia EC
Dystrophic serotonergic axons in neurodegenerative diseases.
Brain Res   (2008 Jun 27);  PMC3405553 free full-text archive
Azmitia EC, Nixon R
Neuroimmune mechanisms in patients with atopic dermatitis during chronic stress.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol   (2008 Jan);  PMC2229631 free full-text archive
Lonne-Rahm SB, Rickberg H, El-Nour H, Marin P, Azmitia EC, Nordlind K
The skin as a mirror of the soul: exploring the possible roles of serotonin.
Exp Dermatol   (2008 Apr);   PMID: 18177349
Nordlind K, Azmitia EC, Slominski A
Cajal and brain plasticity: insights relevant to emerging concepts of mind.
Brain Res Rev   (2007 Oct);   PMID: 18030688
Azmitia EC
Serotonergic mechanisms in human allergic contact dermatitis.
Acta Derm Venereol   (2007);   PMID: 17721644
El-Nour H, Lundeberg L, Abdel-Magid N, Lonne-Rahm SB, Azmitia EC, Nordlind K
Antagonist-induced increase in 5-HT1A-receptor expression in adult rat hippocampus and cortex.
Synapse   (2007 Jul);   PMID: 17447257
Abbas SY, Nogueira MI, Azmitia EC
Serotonin and brain: evolution, neuroplasticity, and homeostasis.
Int Rev Neurobiol   (2007);   PMID: 17178471
Azmitia EC
Expression of serotonergic receptors in psoriatic skin.
Arch Dermatol Res   (2006 Aug);   PMID: 16794822
Nordlind K, Thorslund K, Lonne-Rahm S, Mohabbati S, Berki T, Morales M, Azmitia EC
Gender-specific 5-HT1A receptor changes in BrdU nuclear labeling patterns in neonatal dentate gyrus.
Brain Res Dev Brain Res   (2005 Jun 09);   PMID: 15939086
Greaves JM, Russo SS, Azmitia EC
Chronic gliosis induced by loss of S-100B: knockout mice have enhanced GFAP-immunoreactivity but blunted response to a serotonin challenge.
Brain Res   (2005 Jan 07);   PMID: 15621007
Chang MS, Ariah LM, Marks A, Azmitia EC
Differential effects on somatic and reflex development by chronic clomipramine treatment.
Physiol Behav   (2004 Sep 15);   PMID: 15276801
de Souza SL, Nogueira MI, de Jesus Deiro TC, de Castro FM, da Silva CM, da Silva MC, de Lira LO, Azmitia EC, de Castro RM
Serotonin1A receptors at the axon initial segment of prefrontal pyramidal neurons in schizophrenia.
Am J Psychiatry   (2004 Apr);   PMID: 15056522
Cruz DA, Eggan SM, Azmitia EC, Lewis DA
Serotoninergic chemoreceptive neurons: a search for a shared function.
Mol Interv   (2004 Feb);   PMID: 14993473
Azmitia EC
Deviations in brain early serotonergic development as a result of fetal alcohol exposure.
Neurotox Res   (2002 Jun);   PMID: 12829423
Zhou FC, Sari Y, Li TK, Goodlett C, Azmitia EC
Cajal's hypotheses on neurobiones and neurotropic factor match properties of microtubules and S-100 beta.
Prog Brain Res   (2002);   PMID: 12143407
Azmitia EC
Modern views on an ancient chemical: serotonin effects on cell proliferation, maturation, and apoptosis.
Brain Res Bull   (2001 Nov 15);   PMID: 11750787
Azmitia EC
Neuronal instability: implications for Rett's syndrome.
Brain Dev   (2001 Dec);   PMID: 11738834
Azmitia EC
Colchicine-induced cytoskeletal collapse and apoptosis in N-18 neuroblastoma cultures is rapidly reversed by applied S-100beta.
Brain Res   (2001 Aug 31);   PMID: 11520488
Brewton LS, Haddad L, Azmitia EC
Pyramidal cell axons show a local specialization for GABA and 5-HT inputs in monkey and human cerebral cortex.
J Comp Neurol   (2001 Apr 23);   PMID: 11283956
DeFelipe J, Arellano JI, Gomez A, Azmitia EC, Munoz A
Long term depletion of serotonin leads to selective changes in glutamate receptor subunits.
Neurosci Res   (2000 Dec);   PMID: 11164563
Shutoh F, Hamada S, Shibata M, Narita M, Shiga T, Azmitia EC, Okado N
Krieg cortical kudos 2000.
Cereb Cortex   (2000 Aug);   PMID: 10920054
Azmitia EC
Trophic interactions between brain-derived neurotrophic factor and s100beta on cultured serotonergic neurons.
Brain Res   (2000 Jun 16);   PMID: 10841894
Nishi M, Kawata M, Azmitia EC
Homologous regulation of 5-HT1A receptor mRNA in adult rat hippocampal dentate gyrus.
Neurosci Lett   (1999 Jul 23);   PMID: 10454132
Huang J, Azmitia EC
The Cortical Discoverer Award: Javier De Felipe.
Cereb Cortex   (1999 Jul-Aug);   PMID: 10450898
Azmitia EC
The Cortical Explorer Award: Zoltan Molnar.
Cereb Cortex   (1999 Jul-Aug);   PMID: 10450897
Azmitia EC
The Cortical Scholar Award: Peyman Golshani.
Cereb Cortex   (1999 Jul-Aug);   PMID: 10450896
Azmitia EC
Serotonin neurons, neuroplasticity, and homeostasis of neural tissue.
Neuropsychopharmacology   (1999 Aug);   PMID: 10432487
Azmitia EC
Growth inhibitory effects of a mu opioid on cultured cholinergic neurons from fetal rat ventral forebrain, brainstem, and spinal cord.
Brain Res Dev Brain Res   (1999 Apr 12);   PMID: 10209244
Miller JH, Azmitia EC
Agonist- and antagonist-induced plasticity of rat 5-HT1A receptor in hippocampal cell culture.
Synapse   (1999 Mar 01);   PMID: 10029236
Nishi M, Azmitia EC
Characterization of the translocation of protein kinase C (PKC) by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA/ecstasy) in synaptosomes: evidence for a presynaptic localization involving the serotonin transporter (SERT).
Neuropsychopharmacology   (1998 Oct);   PMID: 9718590
Kramer HK, Poblete JC, Azmitia EC
Transgenic mice overexpressing the neurotrophic factor S-100 beta show neuronal cytoskeletal and behavioral signs of altered aging processes: implications for Alzheimer's disease and Down's syndrome.
Brain Res   (1997 Nov 21);   PMID: 9439795
Whitaker-Azmitia PM, Wingate M, Borella A, Gerlai R, Roder J, Azmitia EC
Molecular characterization of antipeptide antibodies against the 5-HT1A receptor: evidence for state-dependent antibody binding.
Brain Res Mol Brain Res   (1997 Oct 15);   PMID: 9406944
Anthony TE, Azmitia EC
5-HT1A receptor agonist reverses adrenalectomy-induced loss of granule neuronal morphology in the rat dentate gyrus.
Neurochem Res   (1997 Nov);   PMID: 9355105
Huang J, Strafaci JA, Azmitia EC
Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) occurs through the stimulation of serotonin receptors and transporter.
Neuropsychopharmacology   (1997 Sep);   PMID: 9272479
Kramer HK, Poblete JC, Azmitia EC
S100beta promotes the extension of microtubule associated protein2 (MAP2)-immunoreactive neurites retracted after colchicine treatment in rat spinal cord culture.
Neurosci Lett   (1997 Jul 04);   PMID: 9237496
Nishi M, Kawata M, Azmitia EC
Neonatal ACTH administration elicits long-term changes in forebrain monoamine innervation. Subsequent disruptions in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and gonadal function.
Ann N Y Acad Sci   (1997 Apr 24);   PMID: 9160974
Alves SE, Akbari HM, Anderson GM, Azmitia EC, McEwen BC, Strand FL
Neuro-glial neurotrophic interaction in the S-100 beta retarded mutant mouse (Polydactyly Nagoya). III. Transplantation study.
Brain Res   (1996 Oct 28);   PMID: 8949922
Ueda S, Aikawa M, Kawata M, Naruse I, Whitaker-Azmitia PM, Azmitia EC
5-HT1A receptor expression is modulated by corticosteroid receptor agonists in primary rat hippocampal culture.
Brain Res   (1996 May 25);   PMID: 8813366
Nishi M, Azmitia EC
Enhanced synaptophysin immunoreactivity in rat hippocampal culture by 5-HT 1A agonist, S100b, and corticosteroid receptor agonists.
Synapse   (1996 May);   PMID: 8723130
Nishi M, Whitaker-Azmitia PM, Azmitia EC
Increased 5-HT1A receptor immunoreactivity in the rat hippocampus following 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine lesions in the cingulum bundle and fimbria-fornix.
Behav Brain Res   (1996);   PMID: 8788527
Patel TD, Azmitia EC, Zhou FC
Cellular localization of the 5-HT1A receptor in primate brain neurons and glial cells.
Neuropsychopharmacology   (1996 Jan);   PMID: 8719028
Azmitia EC, Gannon PJ, Kheck NM, Whitaker-Azmitia PM
Activation of glycogen phosphorylase by serotonin and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine in astroglial-rich primary cultures: involvement of the 5-HT2A receptor.
Brain Res   (1995 May 22);   PMID: 7663989
Poblete JC, Azmitia EC
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine ('Ecstasy') promotes the translocation of protein kinase C (PKC): requirement of viable serotonin nerve terminals.
Brain Res   (1995 May 22);   PMID: 7663965
Kramer HK, Poblete JC, Azmitia EC
5-HT1A receptor localization on the axon hillock of cervical spinal motoneurons in primates.
J Comp Neurol   (1995 May 01);   PMID: 7608342
Kheck NM, Gannon PJ, Azmitia EC
5-HT1A agonist and dexamethasone reversal of para-chloroamphetamine induced loss of MAP-2 and synaptophysin immunoreactivity in adult rat brain.
Brain Res   (1995 Apr 24);   PMID: 7552242
Azmitia EC, Rubinstein VJ, Strafaci JA, Rios JC, Whitaker-Azmitia PM
Serotonergic sprouting into transplanted C-6 gliomas is blocked by S-100 beta antisense gene.
Brain Res Mol Brain Res   (1995 Apr);   PMID: 7609624
Ueda S, Kokotos Leonardi ET, Bell J 3rd, Azmitia EC
Role of neuropeptide Y projection on the development of serotonergic innervation in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the rat, shown by triple intraocular grafts.
Brain Res   (1995 Mar 06);   PMID: 7606448
Ueda S, Matsumoto Y, Nisimura A, Azmitia EC, Kawata M
Rapid serotonergic fiber sprouting in response to ibotenic acid lesion in the striatum and hippocampus.
Brain Res Dev Brain Res   (1995 Jan 14);   PMID: 7720221
Zhou FC, Azmitia EC, Bledsoe S
Dexamethasone reverses adrenalectomy-induced neuronal de-differentiation in midbrain raphe-hippocampus axis.
Ann N Y Acad Sci   (1994 Nov 30);   PMID: 7825875
Azmitia EC, Liao B
Specificity versus redundancy of melanocortins in nerve regeneration.
Ann N Y Acad Sci   (1994 Oct 31);   PMID: 7832497
Antonawich FJ, Azmitia EC, Kramer HK, Strand FL
MDMA (ecstasy) inhibition of MAO type A and type B: comparisons with fenfluramine and fluoxetine (Prozac).
Neuropsychopharmacology   (1994 Jul);   PMID: 7945733
Leonardi ET, Azmitia EC
Prenatal cocaine decreases the trophic factor S-100 beta and induced microcephaly: reversal by postnatal 5-HT1A receptor agonist.
Neurosci Lett   (1994 Mar 28);   PMID: 8041492
Akbari HM, Whitaker-Azmitia PM, Azmitia EC
In vitro release of [3H]5-hydroxytryptamine from fetal and maternal brain by drugs of abuse.
Brain Res Dev Brain Res   (1994 Mar 18);   PMID: 7911745
Kramer K, Azmitia EC, Whitaker-Azmitia PM
Neuro-glial neurotrophic interaction in the S-100 beta retarded mutant mouse (Polydactyly Nagoya). II. Co-cultures study.
Brain Res   (1994 Jan 07);   PMID: 8137163
Ueda S, Hou XP, Whitaker-Azmitia PM, Azmitia EC
Neuro-glial neurotrophic interaction in the S-100 beta retarded mutant mouse (Polydactyly Nagoya). I. Immunocytochemical and neurochemical studies.
Brain Res   (1994 Jan 07);   PMID: 7511035
Ueda S, Gu XF, Whitaker-Azmitia PM, Naruse I, Azmitia EC
Glial-derived S100b protein selectively inhibits recombinant beta protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation of neuron-specific protein F1/GAP43.
Brain Res Mol Brain Res   (1994 Jan);   PMID: 8164523
Sheu FS, Azmitia EC, Marshak DR, Parker PJ, Routtenberg A
Astroglial 5-HT1a receptors and S-100 beta in development and plasticity.
Perspect Dev Neurobiol   (1994);   PMID: 7850356
Whitaker-Azmitia PM, Azmitia EC
Increase of tryptophan hydroxylase enzyme protein by dexamethasone in adrenalectomized rat midbrain.
J Neurosci   (1993 Dec);   PMID: 8254360
Azmitia EC, Liao B, Chen YS
Rapid neurotrophic actions of an ACTH/MSH(4-9) analogue after nigrostriatal 6-OHDA lesioning.
Peptides   (1993 Nov-Dec);   PMID: 7907791
Antonawich FJ, Azmitia EC, Strand FL
Loss of 5-HT1A receptor mRNA in the dentate gyrus of the long-term adrenalectomized rats and rapid reversal by dexamethasone.
Brain Res Mol Brain Res   (1993 Sep);   PMID: 8231736
Liao B, Miesak B, Azmitia EC
Istvan Tork 1939-1992.
J Comp Neurol   (1993 Jul 08);   PMID: 8345101
Azmitia EC
Localization of 5-HT1A receptors to astroglial cells in adult rats: implications for neuronal-glial interactions and psychoactive drug mechanism of action.
Synapse   (1993 Jul);   PMID: 8211706
Whitaker-Azmitia PM, Clarke C, Azmitia EC
Integrative transporter-mediated release from cytoplasmic and vesicular 5-hydroxytryptamine stores in cultured neurons.
Eur J Pharmacol   (1993 Apr 22);   PMID: 8100196
Gu XF, Azmitia EC
Intraocular co-grafts of fetal dorsal raphe nucleus and suprachiasmatic nucleus.
Brain Res   (1993 Mar 12);   PMID: 8481767
Ueda S, Matsumoto Y, Azmitia EC, Kawata M
Neonatal ACTH and corticosterone alter hypothalamic monoamine innervation and reproductive parameters in the female rat.
Peptides   (1993 Mar-Apr);   PMID: 8387190
Alves SE, Akbari HM, Azmitia EC, Strand FL
Antipeptide antibodies against the 5-HT1A receptor.
J Chem Neuroanat   (1992 Jul-Aug);   PMID: 1524716
Azmitia EC, Yu I, Akbari HM, Kheck N, Whitaker-Azmitia PM, Marshak DR
Recent advances in serotonin research. II: Polymerase chain reaction to positron emission tomography.
J Chem Neuroanat   (1992 Jul-Aug);   PMID: 1524712
Azmitia EC
The substituted amphetamines 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methamphetamine, p-chloroamphetamine and fenfluramine induce 5-hydroxytryptamine release via a common mechanism blocked by fluoxetine and cocaine.
Eur J Pharmacol   (1992 May 14);   PMID: 1356787
Berger UV, Gu XF, Azmitia EC
Evidence for a common mechanism of serotonin release induced by substituted amphetamines in vitro.
Ann N Y Acad Sci   (1992 May 11);   PMID: 1637070
Berger UV, Gu XF, van Lange JW, Azmitia EC
Increased tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the rat cortex following prenatal cocaine exposure.
Brain Res Dev Brain Res   (1992 Apr 24);   PMID: 1351428
Akbari HM, Azmitia EC
Prenatal cocaine exposure disrupts the development of the serotonergic system.
Brain Res   (1992 Feb 14);   PMID: 1535274
Akbari HM, Kramer HK, Whitaker-Azmitia PM, Spear LP, Azmitia EC
Structure and function of the brain serotonin system.
Physiol Rev   (1992 Jan);   PMID: 1731370
Jacobs BL, Azmitia EC
S100 beta and serotonin: a possible astrocytic-neuronal link to neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease.
Prog Brain Res   (1992);   PMID: 1287730
Azmitia EC, Griffin WS, Marshak DR, Van Eldik LJ, Whitaker-Azmitia PM
Awakening the sleeping giant: anatomy and plasticity of the brain serotonergic system.
J Clin Psychiatry   (1991 Dec);   PMID: 1752858
Azmitia EC, Whitaker-Azmitia PM
Ethanol stimulates [3H]5-HT high-affinity uptake by rat forebrain synaptosomes: role of 5-HT receptors and voltage channel blockers.
Brain Res   (1991 Mar 29);   PMID: 1645610
Alexi T, Azmitia EC
Dose-related effects of prenatal 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MT) on development of serotonin terminal density and behavior.
Brain Res Dev Brain Res   (1991 Mar 18);   PMID: 2040080
Shemer AV, Azmitia EC, Whitaker-Azmitia PM
Activity of hippocampal extract on development of [3H]5-HT high-affinity uptake in dissociated microcultures.
Int J Dev Neurosci   (1991);   PMID: 1927581
Azmitia EC, Lama P, Segal M, Whitaker-Azmitia PM, Murphy RB, Zhou FC
5-HT, MDMA (ecstasy), and nimodipine effects on 45Ca-uptake into rat brain synaptosomes.
Ann N Y Acad Sci   (1991);   PMID: 1683755
Park WK, Azmitia EC
Differential effects of prenatal and postnatal ACTH or nicotine exposure on 5-HT high affinity uptake in the neonatal rat brain.
Int J Dev Neurosci   (1991);   PMID: 1656708
King JA, Davila-Garcia M, Azmitia EC, Strand FL
Effects of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine injections in the fornix-fimbria on locomotor activity in photocell cages and the open field.
Behav Brain Res   (1990 Oct 30);   PMID: 2278655
Williams JH, Meara JR, Azmitia EC
Stimulation of astroglial 5-HT1A receptors releases the serotonergic growth factor, protein S-100, and alters astroglial morphology.
Brain Res   (1990 Sep 24);   PMID: 2245332
Whitaker-Azmitia PM, Murphy R, Azmitia EC
Enhanced spatial discrimination learning in rats following 5,7-DHT-induced serotonergic deafferentation of the hippocampus.
Brain Res   (1990 Jun 04);   PMID: 1697213
Altman HJ, Normile HJ, Galloway MP, Ramirez A, Azmitia EC
S-100B but not NGF, EGF, insulin or calmodulin is a CNS serotonergic growth factor.
Brain Res   (1990 May 21);   PMID: 2194631
Azmitia EC, Dolan K, Whitaker-Azmitia PM
MDMA (ecstasy) effects on cultured serotonergic neurons: evidence for Ca2(+)-dependent toxicity linked to release.
Brain Res   (1990 Feb 26);   PMID: 1969761
Azmitia EC, Murphy RB, Whitaker-Azmitia PM
Neurotrophic factor for serotonergic neurons prevents degeneration of grafted raphe neurons in the cerebellum.
Brain Res   (1990 Jan 22);   PMID: 1692500
Zhou FC, Azmitia EC
Role of high affinity serotonin receptors in neuronal growth.
Ann N Y Acad Sci   (1990);   PMID: 2252318
Whitaker-Azmitia PM, Shemer AV, Caruso J, Molino L, Azmitia EC
Neuropeptides as positive or negative neuronal growth regulatory factors: effects of ACTH and leu-enkephalin on cultured serotonergic neurons.
Adv Exp Med Biol   (1990);   PMID: 2165733
Davila-Garcia MI, Azmitia EC
Plasticity of fetal and adult CNS serotonergic neurons: role of growth-regulatory factors.
Ann N Y Acad Sci   (1990);   PMID: 1979212
Azmitia EC, Frankfurt M, Davila M, Whitaker-Azmitia PM, Zhou FC
Physiological effects of selective 5-HT1a and 5-HT1b ligands in rat hippocampus: comparison to 5-HT.
Brain Res   (1989 Nov 13);   PMID: 2531014
Segal M, Azmitia EC, Whitaker-Azmitia PM
Stimulation of astroglial serotonin receptors produces culture media which regulates growth of serotonergic neurons.
Brain Res   (1989 Sep 11);   PMID: 2790458
Whitaker-Azmitia PM, Azmitia EC
Effects of acute and chronic administration of Leu-enkephalin on cultured serotonergic neurons: evidence for opioids as inhibitory neuronal growth factors.
Brain Res Dev Brain Res   (1989 Sep 01);   PMID: 2791270
Davila-Garcia MI, Azmitia EC
Use of tissue culture models to study neuronal regulatory trophic and toxic factors in the aged brain.
Neurobiol Aging   (1988 Sep-Dec);   PMID: 3062480
Azmitia EC, Whitaker-Azmitia PM, Bartus R
Effects of prenatal 5-methoxytryptamine and parachlorophenylalanine on serotonergic uptake and behavior in the neonatal rat.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav   (1988 Aug);   PMID: 2976167
Shemer A, Whitaker-Azmitia PM, Azmitia EC
Transplanted raphe and hippocampal fetal neurons do not displace afferent inputs to the dorsal hippocampus from serotonergic neurons in the median raphe nucleus of the rat.
Brain Res   (1988 May 31);   PMID: 3401722
Zhou FC, Auerbach SB, Azmitia EC
Laminin facilitates and guides fiber growth of transplanted neurons in adult brain.
J Chem Neuroanat   (1988 May-Jun);   PMID: 3267344
Zhou FC, Azmitia EC
Laminin directs and facilitates migration and fiber growth of transplanted serotonin and norepinephrine neurons in adult brain.
Prog Brain Res   (1988);   PMID: 3247440
Zhou FC, Azmitia EC
Postnatal changes in serotonin receptors following prenatal alterations in serotonin levels: further evidence for functional fetal serotonin receptors.
Brain Res   (1987 Jun);   PMID: 2955853
Whitaker-Azmitia PM, Lauder JM, Shemmer A, Azmitia EC
Target cell stimulation of dissociated serotonergic neurons in culture.
Neuroscience   (1987 Jan);   PMID: 3561768
Azmitia EC, Whitaker-Azmitia PM
Onset and duration of astrocytic response to cells transplanted into the adult mammalian brain.
Ann N Y Acad Sci   (1987);   PMID: 3484344
Whitaker-Azmitia PM, Ramirez A, Noreika L, Gannon PJ, Azmitia EC
A serotonin-hippocampal model indicates adult neurons survive transplantation and aged target may be deficient in a soluble serotonergic growth factor.
Ann N Y Acad Sci   (1987);   PMID: 3474950
Azmitia EC
ACTH neuropeptide stimulation of serotonergic neuronal maturation in tissue culture: modulation by hippocampal cells.
Prog Brain Res   (1987);   PMID: 3039579
Azmitia EC, de Kloet ER
Stimulation of serotonergic neuronal maturation after fetal mesencephalic raphe transplantation into the 5,7-DHT-lesioned hippocampus of the adult rat.
Ann N Y Acad Sci   (1987);   PMID: 2886089
Zhou FC, Auerbach SB, Azmitia EC
Autoregulation of fetal serotonergic neuronal development: role of high affinity serotonin receptors.
Neurosci Lett   (1986 Jun 30);   PMID: 3461314
Whitaker-Azmitia PM, Azmitia EC
Induced homotypic sprouting of serotonergic fibers in hippocampus. II. An immunocytochemistry study.
Brain Res   (1986 May 14);   PMID: 3013362
Zhou FC, Azmitia EC
[3H]5-hydroxytryptamine binding to brain astroglial cells: differences between intact and homogenized preparations and mature and immature cultures.
J Neurochem   (1986 Apr);   PMID: 3005509
Whitaker-Azmitia PM, Azmitia EC
Fetal raphe neurons grafted into the hippocampus develop normal adult physiological properties.
Brain Res   (1986 Jan 29);   PMID: 3947961
Segal M, Azmitia EC
Reengineering the brain serotonin system: localized application of specific neurotoxins and fetal serotonergic neurons into the adult CNS.
Adv Neurol   (1986);   PMID: 3484856
Azmitia EC
The primate serotonergic system: a review of human and animal studies and a report on Macaca fascicularis.
Adv Neurol   (1986);   PMID: 2418648
Azmitia EC, Gannon PJ
Characterization of specific binding sites labeled by [3H]LSD in coronal sections of paraformaldehyde-fixed rat brain.
Brain Res   (1985 Oct 21);   PMID: 4041897
Beck SG, Azmitia EC
The effect of adrenalectomy and corticosterone on homotypic collateral sprouting of serotonergic fibers in hippocampus.
Neurosci Lett   (1985 Mar 15);   PMID: 3991054
Zhou FC, Azmitia EC
Facilitated sexual behavior reversed and serotonin restored by raphe nuclei transplanted into denervated hypothalamus.
Science   (1984 Dec 21);   PMID: 6209800
Luine VN, Renner KJ, Frankfurt M, Azmitia EC
Interactions between hippocampal serotonin and the pituitary-adrenal axis in the septal driving of hippocampal theta-rhythm.
Neuroendocrinology   (1984 Nov);   PMID: 6514134
Azmitia EC, McNaughton N, Tsaltas L, Fillenz M, Gray JA
Age differences in within-session habituation of exploratory behavior: effects of stimulus complexity.
Behav Neural Biol   (1984 Sep);   PMID: 6508694
Brennan MJ, Allen D, Aleman D, Azmitia EC, Quartermain D
Induced homotypic collateral sprouting of serotonergic fibers in the hippocampus of rat.
Brain Res   (1984 Aug 06);   PMID: 6206921
Zhou FC, Azmitia EC
Atlas of serotonergic cell bodies in the cat brainstem: an immunocytochemical analysis.
Brain Res Bull   (1984 Jul);   PMID: 6478260
Jacobs BL, Gannon PJ, Azmitia EC
An immunocytochemical study of the serotonergic innervation of the thalamus of the rat.
J Comp Neurol   (1984 Mar 20);   PMID: 6371065
Cropper EC, Eisenman JS, Azmitia EC
5-HT-Immunoreactive fibers in the trigeminal nuclear complex of the rat.
Exp Brain Res   (1984);   PMID: 6381083
Cropper EC, Eisenman JS, Azmitia EC
Evidence for the presence of serotonergic perikarya in the fetal rat pancreas as demonstrated by the high affinity uptake of [3H] 5-HT.
Brain Res   (1983 Dec 05);   PMID: 6652497
Koevary SB, McEvoy RC, Azmitia EC
Formation of a glial scar following microinjection of fetal neurons into the hippocampus or midbrain of the adult rat: an immunocytochemical study.
Neurosci Lett   (1983 Jul 29);   PMID: 6353282
Azmitia EC, Whitaker PM
Effects of microinjections of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the rat on serotonin reuptake and the circadian variation of corticosterone levels.
Neuroendocrinology   (1983 Jun);   PMID: 6877522
Williams JH, Miall-Allen VM, Klinowski M, Azmitia EC
Rat pancreatic serotonergic nerves: morphologic, pharmacologic and physiologic studies.
Brain Res   (1983 Apr 18);   PMID: 6303512
Koevary SB, Azmitia EC, McEvoy RC
Effects of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine on HRP retrograde transport from hippocampus to midbrain raphe nuclei in the rat.
Brain Res Bull   (1983 Apr);   PMID: 6860973
Zhou FC, Azmitia EC
A light and electron microscopic analysis of the selective retrograde transport of (3H)-5-hydroxytryptamine by serotonergic neurons.
J Histochem Cytochem   (1982 Aug);   PMID: 6181122
Azmitia EC, Gannon PJ
Recent advances in serotonin methods.
J Histochem Cytochem   (1982 Aug);   PMID: 6181118
Azmitia EC
Histamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase in monkey brain.
Brain Res   (1982 May 13);   PMID: 6284312
Newton MV, Hough LB, Azmitia EC
Effect of 5-HT depletion of the hippocampus on neuronal transmission from perforant path through dentate gyrus.
Brain Res   (1982 Mar 04);   PMID: 6329412
Srebro B, Azmitia EC, Winson J
Specific in vitro uptake of serotonin by cells in the anterior pituitary of the rat.
Endocrinology   (1982 Mar);   PMID: 7056230
Johns MA, Azmitia EC, Krieger DT
Physiological stimulation enhances HRP marking of salivary neurons in rats.
Brain Res Bull   (1982 Jan);   PMID: 6173105
Eisenman JS, Azmitia EC
Bilateral serotonergic projections to the dorsal hippocampus of the rat: simultaneous localization of 3H-5HT and HRP after retrograde transport.
J Comp Neurol   (1981 Dec 20);   PMID: 6173402
Azmitia EC
Fetal raphe and hippocampal transplants into adult and aged C57BL/6N mice: a preliminary immunocytochemical study.
Brain Res Bull   (1981 Dec);   PMID: 7034870
Azmitia EC, Perlow MJ, Brennan MJ, Lauder JM
The immunocytochemical localization of serotonergic neurons in the rat hypothalamus.
Neurosci Lett   (1981 Jul 17);   PMID: 7024855
Frankfurt M, Lauder JM, Azmitia EC
Hippocampal serotonin re-uptake and nocturnal locomotor activity after microinjections of 5,7-DHT in the fornix-fimbria.
Brain Res   (1981 Feb 23);   PMID: 7470907
Williams JH, Azmitia EC
The visualization and characterization of 5HT reuptake sites in the rodent and primate hippocampus. A preliminary study.
J Physiol (Paris)   (1981);   PMID: 7288636
Azmitia EC
Septal elicitation of hippocampal theta rhythm after localized de-afferentation of serotoninergic fibers.
Brain Res   (1980 Nov 03);   PMID: 7417815
McNaughton N, Azmitia EC, Williams JH, Buchan A, Gray JA
Specific uptake of tritiated serotonin in the adult rat pancreas: evidence for the presence of serotonergic fibers.
Am J Anat   (1980 Nov);   PMID: 6971051
Koevary SB, McEvoy RC, Azmitia EC
In vitro hippocampal uptake of tritiated serotonin (3H-5HT): A morphological, biochemical, and pharmacological approach to specificity.
J Histochem Cytochem   (1980 Jul);   PMID: 6967079
Azmitia EC, Marovitz WF
Age related changes in NGF, EGF and protease in the granular convoluted tubules of the mouse submandibular gland. A morphological and immunocytochemical study.
J Gerontol   (1980 Jul);   PMID: 6156967
Gresik EW, Azmitia EC
Structural and functional restoration by collateral sprouting of hippocampal 5-HT axons.
Nature   (1978 Jul 27);   PMID: 566855
Azmitia EC, Buchan AM, Williams JH
An autoradiographic analysis of the differential ascending projections of the dorsal and median raphe nuclei in the rat.
J Comp Neurol   (1978 Jun 01);   PMID: 565370
Azmitia EC, Segal M
A modification of the Falck-Hillarp technique for 5-HT fluorescence employing hypertonic formaldehyde perfusion.
J Histochem Cytochem   (1976 Dec);   PMID: 1002978
Azmitia EC, Henriksen SJ
Early response of rat brain tryptophan hydroxylase activity to cycloheximide, puromycin and corticosterone.
J Neurochem   (1976 Sep);   PMID: 61255
Azmitia EC Jr, McEwen BS
Temporal effects of fornix transection on brain tryptophan hydroxylase activity and plasma corticosterone levels.
Neuroendocrinology   (1976);   PMID: 1021715
Azmitia EC Jr, Conrad LC
Adrenalcortical influence on rat brain tryptophan hydroxylase activity.
Brain Res   (1974 Sep 27);   PMID: 4277348
Azmitia EC Jr, McEwen BS
Recovery of memory following amnesia in the rat and mouse.
J Comp Physiol Psychol   (1972 Jun);   PMID: 5066260
Quartermain D, McEwen BS, Azmitia EC Jr
Prevention of ECS-induced amnesia by reestablishing continuity with the training situation.
Physiol Behav   (1972 May);   PMID: 5065275
Azmitia EC Jr, McEwen BS, Quartermain D
Amnesia produced by electroconvulsive shock or cycloheximide: conditions for recovery.
Science   (1970 Aug 14);   PMID: 5464302
Quartermain D, McEwen BS, Azmitia EC Jr
In vivo conversion of 3H-L-tryptophan into 3H-serotonin in brain areas of adrenalectomized rats.
Science   (1970 Jul 10);   PMID: 5448706
Azmitia EC Jr, Algeri S, Costa E
Changes in enzymes subserving catecholamine metabolism in morphine tolerance and withdrawal in rat.
Brain Res   (1970 Jun 03);   PMID: 5534365
Reis DJ, Hess P, Azmitia EC Jr
Tryptophan hydroxylase changes in midbrain of the rat after chronic morphine administration.
Life Sci I   (1970 Jun 01);   PMID: 5452527
Azmitia EC Jr
Corticosterone regulation of tryptophan hydroxylase in midbrain of the rat.
Science   (1969 Dec 05);   PMID: 5350319
Azmitia EC Jr, McEwen BS
Updated on 03/02/2017